Today’s electronic systems are likely to have many different power supply rails. For reliable, repeatable operation, the on-off timing, rise/fall rates, order of application, and magnitude of each voltage must be controlled. Typical system designs may include supply sequencing, tracking, and voltage/current monitoring/control. A variety of integrated power management ICs exist to perform these functions.
S- (scattering) parameters characterize electrical networks using matched impedances. Scattering refers to the way traveling currents or voltages are affected when they meet a discontinuity in a transmission line. S-parameters allow a device to be treated as a “black box” with inputs and outputs, enabling a system to be modeled without having to deal with the complex details of its actual structure.
High efficiency dc-to-dc converters come in three basic topologies: step-down (buck), step-up (boost), and step-down/step-up (buck/boost). The buck converter is used to generate a lower dc output voltage, the boost converter is used to generate a higher dc output voltage, and the buck/boost converter is used to generate an output voltage less than, greater than, or equal to the input voltage.
Data-acquisition systems and PLCs require versatile high-performance analog front ends that interface with a variety of sensors to measure signals accurately and reliably. Depending on the magnitude of the voltage or current being measured, the signal may need to be amplified or attenuated to match the full-scale input range of the ADC used for further digital processing and feedback control.