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For 1,850 years Egypt’s Predynastic era (5000 B.C.–3150 B.C.) were busy times of intense cultural and agricultural development, population growth, widespread settlement, and adding hieroglyphic writing. Egypt’s population was near 1 million when King Narmer united the “two lands” in 3100 B.C.

375 years of the Early Dynastic Period (3000 B.C.–2625 B.C. saw unifying Upper and Lower Egypt under strong central rule. During this time the capital city of Memphis was founded, and Egypt’s huge, bureaucratic government rapidly developed.

Between 2625 B.C.–2130 B.C. would be know as the age of the great pyramids. In statues of themselves, the old rulers showed a calm, godlike appearance. In their belief they knew they were assured of eternal life. They were portrayed speaking directly to the gods and thinking lofty thoughts and they poured all Egypt into building lavish tombs for themselves.

By the end of the period Egypt’s population had grown to 2 million, mostly poor peasants. There was general unhappiness and unrest with increasingly expensive royal building projects. Powerful, wealthy

Rulers started ignoring the king, and splintered Egypt into independent feudal provinces.

Also, Climate changes bought a disastrous series of events to the lower Nile. This caused crop failures and widespread famine. The miseries of the First Intermediate Period lasted for 150 years, Egypt suffered chaos, civil war, and famine.

Then came the Middle Kingdom which was glorious but also and era of reform and cultural restoration. As one can see in the statues of this period, the rulers were shown to have a worried, careworn expressions which clearly depicted these rulers were facing many real-world problems.

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