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In September 1980, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran, which initiated one of the longest and bloodiest wars in contemporary Middle Eastern history. Saddam most likely chose to use military force because of threats to his regime from Iranian-sponsored subversion which he failed to counter with diplomacy.
The purpose of this paper is to answer the following question: Does the generation of Iranians born after the 1979 revolution wish to continue living under the system established by Ayatollah Khomeini, or do they wish to modernize (or perhaps westernize) their current political, social, and economic systems?
Due to the presence of weapons of mass destruction and the will to employ them in the Middle East, the operational commander of the next conflict must understand and employ a new deterrent triad. This triad is composed of the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of deterrence.
This paper considers the future use of aerospace power in the changing international system. First, the nature and scope of the changing international system are analyzed via an examination of significant trends in technology, demography, military, and social affairs to build an analytical picture of the coming strategic environment and the probable challenges facing aerospace forces.
To examine four issues as determinants in the location of future conflicts in which Marine Corps forces would be involved. The United States bases its foreign policy and military preparedness upon blunting general war in Europe.
Published: June 12, 2016.
Nonfiction » History » Asian
Since Deng Xiaoping instituted economic reforms under the "reform and open" policy in 1978, the Chinese Communist Party has overseen a gradualist approach to modernizing China's economy. A new Chinese middle class has emerged with China's economic reforms and economic growth.
Since the birth of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, American military strategy, foreign policy, and naval presence in East Asia, have all had a significant effect on the evolution of China's naval development, strategy, and maritime doctrine.
This article examines the organizational impediments to optimal military responses in a crisis. . A military culture influenced by rigid planning and structured regulation dictates a rational approach to crisis response. But organizational influences can enter the decisionmaking process.
The Alliance is reorganizing itself at every level. Today we find NATO deeply involved in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) - its troops patrol the streets and environs of Kabul as part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and its ships secure the waterways of the Mediterranean through Operation Active Endeavor.
Efforts towards organizing, training, and equipping U.S. airpower assets remain based on the assumption of face-to-face conventional confrontations. This is a comforting hypothesis, as U.S. technological superiority should keep the odds stacked in our favor for decades to come.
The Continental Congress and General Washington mistakenly inflated the importance of New York City to the cause of the revolution. After racing to beat the British to New York, Washington committed his army to the defense of Long Island, either overlooking or neglecting its critical vulnerabilities.
The Marine Corps' development of amphibious warfare doctrine during the Interwar Period provides an example of successful peacetime innovation. The development of amphibious capabilities provides a guide for future innovation.
This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This article surveys the historical military experience since the formation of modern Iraq and until the present time.
Gulf War analysts have increased their focus on Khafji, arguing that this relatively minor engagement had significant strategic implications for the Gulf War as well as future conflicts. In particular, airpower advocates increasingly refer to Khafji as the example of airpower's emerging role in halting armored offenses, a traditional Army mission.
The development of a coherent and effective United States strategy to manage the global low intensity conflict threat is contingent on understanding this complex phenomenon. This, in turn, requires a comprehensive theory of low intensity conflict be crafted by security professionals and scholars.
s study seeks to understand the influence of U.S. military reform on U.S. civil-military relations functioning within a zone of cooperation or conflict between political and military realms during times of war.
The purpose of this book is to trace the evolution of airpower theory from the earliest days of powered flight to the present, concluding with a chapter that speculates on the future of military space applications.
professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. The Principles of War have long served as the foundation for warfighting doctrine, the how-to checklist for waging war. The current set of principles, however, was developed by military men for military application and does not meet the intent of a guide to war for the diplomatic, informational, and economic elements.
During the early years of the Cold War, the United States Army developed the new doctrine of Unconventional Warfare. This doctrine focused on U.S. soldiers working through and with indigenous guerrilla units to achieve tactical successes in support of the larger theater campaign.
Anytime the use of US Armed Forces in support of civil authorities is considered, government and military leaders, pundits, and citizens reflexively turn to the Posse Comitatus Act for guidance. Since 9/11, the US Armed Forces face an increased likelihood that they will be called on to participate in actions typically viewed as civil matters.
Today, Israel is facing a new challenge as it considers Iran's nuclear program. This thesis is a comparative case study analyzing how Israel utilized its instruments of national power to deal with the threats in Iraq and Syria and how the international community responded after Israel destroyed their nuclear reactors.
Currently, the United States finds itself in a very similar predicament to what Great Britain experienced after emerging from the First World War as she set about the governance of a growing empire during the interwar period.
This paper considers command and combat in the information age. it is an issue that takes us into the realms of the unknown. Defence thinkers everywhere are searching forward for the science and alchemy that will deliver operational success.
It is a moral imperative that states take action to prevent and punish genocide. History teaches that sometimes other states will not act unless America does its part. We must refine United States Government efforts—economic, diplomatic, and law-enforcement—so that they target those individuals responsible for genocide and not the innocent citizens they rule.
This overview is designed to assist the reader in acknowledging and understanding the historical context of overt racist and discriminatory policies and practices in our military and how these dynamics and policies were perpetuated within the Armed Services.
This study examines the roles and missions of airpower in urban operations in smaller-scale contingencies. Urban operations, often referred to as military operations on urbanized terrain (MOUT), are some of the most complex and difficult missions currently facing the US military.
Russell Howard's paper focuses on intelligence operations within denied areas and how these operations today differ from those of the Cold War period. Today, the preeminent threat is transnational, violent terrorist groups that operate under the cover of failed or weak states, as well as under the civil protections afforded in western liberal democracies.
The 2010 Marine Corps Operating Concept (MOC) Assuring Littoral Access... Winning Small Wars makes the assertion that conventional forces designed, trained, and equipped for major combat operations against a peer competitor would not be equally adept at operations to counter insurgents, guerilla forces, and other irregular threats.
This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. This report builds on the research and ideas of the school of thought that believes strategy is the most important factor in predicting war outcomes.
This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. Since achieving independence in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union, Georgia has become the most westward-oriented state in the Transcaucasus.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book examines why America has failed in both Lebanon in 1982-1984 and Iraq in 2003, to achieve its political objectives.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book proposes that Joint Seabasing may be able to provide the United States with a force projection capability which is able to meet the demands of the future operating environment, as long as the JSB is considered a component system of an overarching strategic mobility system.
Widely held views of military-press relations in the United States rest upon an incomplete image of the past. This became overwhelmingly evident during the Gulf War with its generalizations about the experience of the Vietnam War.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book examines grand strategy and the assistance such a strategy makes to the development and articulation of the National Security Strategy. This is the focus of much of the curriculum at all the war colleges within the Pentagon.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book examines two ways that the U.S. might be able to secure its interests in the Gulf using a minimalist approach. The two methods evaluated are using sea bases in the Gulf and land bases in Djibouti in the Horn of Africa as forward staging bases for SOF operations in the Persian Gulf.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book examines the issue of Pakistan's nuclear weapons arsenal and the risk of war in South Asia, including India. Normally, the risk of war between Pakistan and India and possible nuclear escalation would be bad enough.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book examines the possible role of Islamic extremism in Nigeria. This thesis examines characteristics of Islamic extremism in Nigeria. Specifically, the thesis examines the strategic indicators for an Islamic extremist safe haven and the presence of those indicators in Nigeria.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book tells the compelling story of how the Army helped to bring a proud but battered country back to life - Kuwait after it was liberated during Operation Desert Storm.
This paper analyzes the effectiveness of the current U.S. engagement policy with China that has been implemented since 1972. Is the engagement policy an appeasement policy? Is China's rise causing the downfall of the United States? Is this a zero-sum game or does it provide a win-win solution for both sides?
This study investigates the defense of Charleston, South Carolina, during the American Civil War. Charleston, during this period, is unique because of the diversified nature the military operations that took place there.
The Mahanian vision led the US to develop a modern navy while Mitchell's vision led to an independent US Air Force. The results from the case studies are used to clarify the role of the visionary in MNS change as well as the relative importance of a visionary to other previously identified factors associated with military innovation.
China continues to develop high technology weapons systems and force projection platforms that are widening its military advantage over its neighbors and could possible deny American military access to the region in the event of conflict. China's true ambitions and long-term strategy are difficult to discern, as it is intentionally secretive about its military development and foreign policy.
The preponderance of conflicts fought over the last seventy years have included or been centered on irregular warfare and counter-insurgency. Indeed, the helicopter's first significant trials in combat took place during the Algerian War 1954-1962, the Vietnam War 1955-1975, and the Soviet-Afghan War 1979-1989.
As the United States continues to recover from the greatest recession since the Great Depression, the U.S. government must find cost savings. Therefore, this project aimed to find efficiencies through reallocating funds from a program proven ineffective.
Free access to the waterways of the world determine the United States' ability to survive and prosper. The threat and the employment of sea mines are capable of interrupting the U.S. quest for national and economic security.
The United States faces an important strategic question in northwest Africa: what level of activity by al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) would constitute a sufficient threat to U.S. national security interests to warrant a more aggressive political, intelligence, military, and law enforcement response?