This course opens the door to postmodern scholasticism. The Baroque scholastics (1600 to 1680AD) lived in Spain at the same time that Galileo, Descartes, and others founded the current Age of Ideas. Forgotten for 300 years, the Baroque scholastics re-emerge today. Postmodern thought significantly overlaps with concerns of the Baroque scholastics. What is a mind-dependent being? What is abstraction? What is a sign? These are all covered in this course. Two books by philosophers are covered, one by Daniel Novotny and the other by John Deely. These may be purchased separately. Student instructions are in the commentaries. Start with Novotny and commentary, proceed to primer #11, then finish with Deely and commentary.