Solitary: The History and Current Reality of Torture as a Means of Social Control Within Prisons
by Joanne Pawlowski
Why is solitary confinement, known to cause a mental state akin to psychosis, widely used in contemporary prisons? Solitary's powerful psychological effects make it a unique tool for exerting social control. This history argues that CIA "brainwashing" research of the 1950s may have influenced the design of isolation units in American prisons today.