21st Century U.S. Military Documents: The History of the Unified Command Plan 1946 - 1993 - Special Operations, Space, Atlantic Commands, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Faced with the need to establish unified command of US military forces in peacetime, the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1946 created an organizational directive, the "Outline Command Plan," which was the first in a series of documents known as Unified Command Plans. More
Faced with the need to establish unified command of US military forces in peacetime, the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1946 created an organizational directive, the "Outline Command Plan," which was the first in a series of documents known as Unified Command Plans. Approved by the President, the Unified Command Plan prescribes high level command arrangements for operational forces on a global basis; its structure and the organizational philosophies that structure represents have had a major impact on US military operations in the post-World War II era. Thus the history of the Unified Command Plan is a useful guide for those engaged in the development of current military policy and strategy as well as an important reference for students of US policy and strategy during the Cold War.
The History of the Unified Command Plan, 1946-1993, covers the formulation of the plan, modifications, and periodic revisions. This volume is a compilation of three separate histories which were originally classified. The section describing the development of the Unified Command Plan between 1946 and 1977 was written by Dr. Robert J. Watson, Mr. James F. Schnabel, and Mr. Willard J. Webb and first published in declassified form in the late 1980s. The section covering the period from 1977 to 1983 was written by Dr. Ronald H. Cole and published in a classified version in 1985.
Overview * PART ONE: 1946 - 1977 * Origins in World War II * The First Unified Command Plan, 1946 * Establishment of CINCFE, CINCPAC, CINCAL, CINCEUR * Establishment of CINCLANT * Developments in 1948 * Establishment of Northeast Command * Command Changes in the European Theater, 1949-1952 * Clarifying Responsibilities of Unified Commanders, 1950 * Command in the Far East During the Korean War * Interim Revision of the UCP, 1952-1953 * Department of Defense Reorganization, 1953 * Change in the Executive Agent System * Establishment of Air Force Component for CINCPAC * Establishment of Continental Air Defense Command * The Unified Command Plan, 1955 * Changes in Terms of Reference for CONAD * Reorganization in 1956: Abolition of CINCFE * Establishment of CINCNORAD; Alteration of CINCONAD's Status * Department of Defense Reorganization, 1958 * The Revised Unified Command Plan, 1961 * Refining Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Responsibilities * CINCLANT's Assumption of African Tasks * Command Changes for Cuban Operations * Establishment of Strike Command * Altered Arrangements for the Middle East and Africa * Redesignation of CARIBCOM as USSOUTHCOM * Assigning CONAD to Defend against Space Systems * Command Relations in the Vietnam War * Developments in the Late 1960s * Blue Ribbon Panel Consideration of the Unified Command System * The Unified Command Plan, 1971 * 1974-1975 Review * Adjustment in the PACOM Boundary * Designation of MAC as a Specified Command * Notes * PART TWO: 1977-1983 * Requirement for a Biennial Review * Air Defense of the Panama Canal, 1978 * Sub-Saharan Africa, 1976-1978 * Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force, 1977-1979 * The Middle East and the First Biennial Review, 1980 * The Caribbean Basin and the First Biennial Review, 1980-198 * The Transition from the RDJTF to USCENTCOM, 1981-1982 * The 1982 Biennial Review * The New Unified Command Plan, 1983 * Notes * PART THREE: 1983-1993 * Setting Up US Space Command * Readjusting for a Special Operations Command * The Evolution of USTRANSCOM * Debating Smaller Adjustments, 1983-1990 * Accommodating to a New World Order * Strategic Command: An Easy Change * Expanding the Atlantic Command * Conclusion * Notes * Appendix I * Dates Unified and Specified Commands Established Under the Unified Command Plan * Appendix II * Unified Command Plans * Appendix III * Chronological Listing of Presidents of the United States, Secretaries of Defense, and Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff * Appendix IV * Membership of the Joint Chiefs of Staff * Appendix V * Glossary of Abbreviations
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