Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, Plasmodium, which infects red blood cells. Malaria has infected humans since the beginning of mankind. The name "mal aria" (meaning "bad air" in Italian) was first used in 1740 by H. Walpole. The term was shortened to "malaria" in the 20th century. C. Laveran in 1880 was the first to identify the parasites in human blood. More
At present there is no vaccine available for malaria. Malaria occurs in an area where the combination of high human population density, high anopheles mosquito population density and high rates of transmission from humans to mosquitoes and from mosquitoes to humans available. If any of these is lowered sufficiently, the parasite will eventually disappear from that area. However, unless the parasite is eliminated from the whole world, it could become re-established if conditions revert to a combination that favours the parasite's reproduction. Furthermore, the cost per person of eliminating anopheles mosquitoes rises with decreasing population density, making it economically possible in some areas. Prevention of malaria may be more cost-effective than treatment of the disease in the long run, but the initial costs required are out of reach of many of the world's poorest people. China government announced a strategy to pursue malaria elimination which required small proportion of investment of public expenditure on health. Whereas a similar program in Tanzania would cost an estimated one-fifth of the public health budget.
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