B.S. and M.A. degrees in Economics from the University of Minnesota. Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Washington. As a college and university professor, taught macroeconomic and microeconomic theory at the principles, intermediate, advanced, and graduate level, monetary theory and policy, environmental economics, and special issues courses. Wrote economic/investment newsletters with as many as 70,000 paid subscribers. Reviewed in magazines and newspapers. Interviewed on television and radio.