3. France: the disconnected radical

4. The Netherlands: the nostalgic radical

5. Finland: the alienated radical

6. Warnings and recommendations

Annexe: Methodology



Data references


We would like to thank the generous support of the Open Society Foundations for our project ‘Recapturing Europe’s Reluctant Radicals’. In particular, we are extremely grateful for the enthusiastic support of Heather Grabbe, Debora Guidetti, Ellen Riotte and Nadja Groot. We are also grateful for all the datasets kindly provided to us, including the ESS, the BES 2010, ITANES 2008, PEF 2012, NKO 2010 and the 2011 Finnish National Election Study. Special thanks go to Pascal Perrineau, Steven Van Hauwaert and Flora Chanvril-Ligneel at CEVIPOF for their cooperation regarding the use of the PEF 2012 dataset.

We would also like to thank all the participants in the workshops we held in France, the Netherlands and Finland, in particular Paul Lagneau-Ymonet at the University of Paris-Dauphine, Sara De Lange at the University of Amsterdam and Erkka Railo at the University of Turku for kindly organising the workshops. In France, special thanks go to Joel Gombin for his advice and suggestions.

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