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-Tertiary rocks: this rocks have gray or red sand and clay and reddish orange silt.

-Quaternary rocks: these can be found at or near the surface of the earth in valleys and the are the most recently laid geologic strata.

-Volcanic rocks: these are rocks formed from the magma of volcanic eruptions.

Nigeria is blessed with a lot of natural resources such as lime stone found Benue, Cross River, Borno states etc. Clay is found in Edo, Lagos, Kaduna state. Others are; Bitumen, columbite, glass-sand, tin, copper etc. There is no state with less than ten(10) mineral resource.

Climate: we have the rainy and dry seasons. In the Southern part; rain starts falling from february/march to october/november or may fall through out the year while in the Northern part rains starts from april/may to september/october or may fall less than three(3) months in a year.

Vegetation: Rainfall highly influences the type of vegetation in a given area. Therefore we can say there are two(2) types of vegetation.

1. Forest vegetation: it is found in the Southern part and along the river course of the North where there is adequate rainfall. For forest vegetation there are three types.

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