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The book is dedicated to the detainees, the Japanese Americans, German and Italian immigrants, who were illegally detained in internment camps during World War II. It is hoped it will never happen again.

I also dedicate this book to Lukas, Kellan, Dane, Kiara and Anna, whose energy keeps me going.


It was February 13,1942. World War II raged in Europe and Asia as the German Army scored blitzkrieg triumphs in weak Poland, yielding France and helpless Norway and Sweden. Hitler was getting ready to invade England and gobble up a blundering Russia. Nothing over the horizon appeared to impede his plans.

In the South Pacific, the Japanese torpedo bombers, fresh from destroying the United States Navy in Pearl Harbor, were taking command of the Pacific Islands. Fascist Italy, in a bold move, backed Germany and declared war on France and Britain. Uneasiness, uncertainty and paranoia defined the mood in the freedom-loving United States. Americans' trust in the legal aliens living in the United States dwindled.

The fall of France and the bombing of Britain sparked deep concern in the United States. Many believed that France's collapse had come as a result of insurgencies. The ill-prepared French displayed little resistance and the collaborators were able to take over the French cities and countryside with little effort. America wondered: Could it happen here?

The United States began to search recklessly for traitors, enemy sympathizers and saboteurs within its borders. With this tough action came the greatest dismantling of personal civil liberties in the history of the land of the free. Suspects were everywhere. No one would be exonerated.

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