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This monograph identifies gaps in the progression of history, theory, and doctrine for partner force advising and for phase 0 operations in general that contribute to differing cultural attitudes towards these mission and environments between SOF and CF.
What actions, if any, will make foreign humanitarian assistance and disaster response (FHA/DR) operations in the Department of Defense (DOD) more effective? The requirement for interagency responses to events of great magnitude has created the need for leaders of those participating organizations to grasp what is required of them during those instances.
This monograph asks what the US Army can do to better reduce toxic and unethical leadership and develop officers to optimize the force for mission command. To do so the monograph examines the leader development and evaluation systems and, based on findings from those examinations.
Relevant to the study of leadership is the study of past leaders and their methods. Thus, the study of Matthew B. Ridgway upon becoming the commander of Eighth Army during the Korean War is intriguing for both the brevity and way in which he turned a defeatist army into a capable fighting force.
The US Department of Defense has designated newly developed technologies with increased range and lethality, designed to prevent opposing forces from maneuvering to or within an operational area, as "anti-access" and "area denial" threats.
America has been involved in the Arab world since just after the American revolution, when its merchant vessels and their crews, newly bereft via national independence of the protection of the British Navy, became prey for the pirates of the Barbary Coast.
The study concludes that the current geopolitical and military environment within the context of China's geopolitical tensions and military modernization requires greater amphibious capabilities within the US Army.
Western militaries orient their understanding of depth on the physically quantifiable aspects of time and space. Yet, new understanding of the human mind across multiple disciplines proves the more important aspect of depth is cognitive in nature.
The party's activities during the war, including the attack against the United States Marine Corps barracks in 1983, established the organization as the pre-eminent terrorist organization in the region. Following the war, Hezbollah expanded their operations to Africa and South America, targeting Israeli and Western interests' taking its concept of Islamic Resistance worldwide.
Instead of the clear guidance of the mythos, the guidance processes from World War II (from Pearl Harbor to Operation Torch, specifically) and the Gulf War demonstrate a very different relationship between strategic guidance and military planning. In reality, guidance was more like general principles governing operations than clear objectives.
Abraham Guillen's theory on urban guerilla warfare marked a significant evolution from popular theories on guerrilla warfare during the late 1960s. Guillen's theory developed from his personal experience during the Spanish Civil War and bore the deep influence of the popular theories of guerrilla warfare, including Mao Tse-tung's protracted popular war and "Che" Guevara's foquismo theory.
This monograph analyzes Operation Ajax as a historical case study of the inherent challenges of estimative intelligence and analyst-policymaker tensions. In 1953, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) led a coup that overthrew Iran's elected prime minister, Dr. Mohammed Mossadeq.
Eisenhower saw unity of effort, and the principles employed to achieve it, as enablers to Allied Forces Headquarters' success in North Africa. When Eisenhower became Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force, he employed the same principles to instill unity of effort within this new command.
Assessing the Army's model for recruiting, retaining, and organizing a Cyber Mission Force required a number of steps. First, it was necessary to understand the unique generational and character traits for those drawn to highly technical fields.
The path to Interdependence between Conventional Forces (CF) and Special Forces (SF) grew out of the success and failure in combat and peacetime operations over the last three decades. Beginning with the catastrophic collision during Operation Eagle Claw to combined operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, interdependence has been a difficult process.
In autumn 2011, the US Army introduced Unified Land Operations (ULO) as its new operational concept, concluding the era of Full Spectrum Operations (FSO). FSO was the Army's operational concept during recent conflicts, including the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Mission command, like its Prussian-German predecessor Auftragstaktik, is a cultural phenomenon that requires a very specific set of characteristics to function effectively. There are noticeable cultural barriers that are prohibiting the full adoption of mission command in the US Army.
General Lyman L. Lemnitzer and General Charles H. Bonesteel III illustrate the need for the Army to better understand and value manager leadership at the same level as heroism on the battlefield. Their careers demonstrate why the Army needs to look beyond the heroic model of leadership and cultivate managerial leadership.
This monograph employs a historical analysis to review the debate and subsequent decision within the US government in 1949 and 1950 over whether to pursue an accelerated program to develop thermonuclear weapons. The development of the thermonuclear bomb by the United States and Soviet Union in the early 1950s significantly altered the balance of power between nations.
Strategic and political leaders have determined that the US and ISAF campaign assessments were neither useful nor accurate. The DOD 1230 biannual report titled the Report on Progress toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan provides comprehensive information to strategic and political leaders regarding the progress of the United States' strategy in Afghanistan.
George Washington was a remarkable paradox; both a congruent output from the social system he was a part of and a remarkably aberrant agent when compared to his contemporaries. Washington's impact on the social and political system of the colonies emerged in two distinct phases.
Rather than searching for how to attain or how to practice strategic genius, this monograph simply asks what is strategic genius? To this end, instead of describing the development of strategic genius, this monograph attempts to describe its characteristics.
Today the nation faces the new challenge of how to best defend itself against cyber attacks. Just as the militia, forbearers to the National Guard, enabled George Washington's attack against Trenton, the National Guard stands ready today to work with Department of Defense (DoD) to counter the growing cyber threat.
Although it is impossible to predict the future, the operational environment of 2025 and beyond may require additional military support to the United States Government's agencies in Foreign Disaster Relief (FDR). Global climate change, urbanization, growing natural resources scarcity, and other factors will increase the need for humanitarian assistance (HA) and disaster relief.
The 28th Infantry Division of the Pennsylvania National Guard suffered near collapse in the Battle of the Hurtgen Forest in November 1944 but recovered in time to delay a German force eight times its size in the Battle of the Bulge just four weeks later.
India possesses a rich history of combating insurgencies throughout its country. The Naxalite movement originated when India gained its independence and now seventy years later presents the greatest insurgency threat.
As the US Army transitions into a period of transformation, it is focusing its attention on becoming a more adaptable organization that can meet the challenges of an uncertain future. Faced with personnel and budget reductions, the Army is evaluating changes to its operational doctrine, organizational structure, leader development, and unit training in an effort to become more lethal.
In early April 1943, the United States military targeted and killed Imperial Japanese Marshal Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet, Isoroku Yamamoto. It marked the first time in known history, that the US military specifically targeted an individual commander for elimination.
An examination of the French experience in Indochina, the Suez, and Algeria illustrates the impact of strategic culture on the conduct of military operations and conflict outcomes thereby better preparing the United States for future wars.
The Army has long expressed the need to replace the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) with a new ground combat vehicle. The Bradley, one of the original Big Five, was designed to fight a Cold War threat. Requirements have changed since then but the Army continues to use the BFV as its primary infantry-fighting vehicle.
Genocide is a complex phenomenon that has a long and dark history. The contemporary concept of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) seeks to rid the world of this murderous practice through prevention and in some cases military intervention.
This monograph examines the relevance of NATO in the twenty-first century, particularly from a perspective of US interests within a framework of contemporary history. Since the end of the Cold War NATO has struggled to maintain a raison d'etre for its continued existence and relevance. In the 1990s NATO expanded both its membership and the scope of its operations beyond collective defense.
Crisis action planning (CAP) is the military process for resolving imminent and emerging crises. CAP activities require the interaction and collaboration of numerous echelons to provide military and whole-of-government options to the National Command Authority for consideration.
Among the most insidious challenges to the contemporary state is the corrosive capture and use of illicit power, which both weakens the state and creates among populations the perception of inefficacy, incompetence, and, ultimately, illegitimacy.
This excellent compilation of papers, essays, and documents containing the work of Lt. General Herbert (H.R.) McMaster, nominated by President Donald Trump to be his National Security Advisor, has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. These papers provide a unique and timely insight into the thought process and war scholarship of McMaster.
As US Army units begin conducting decisive action training in combat training centers, they must strengthen core field artillery proficiencies and relearn how to employ artillery successfully as part of a combined arms team in an expeditionary environment.
The monograph assesses the effectiveness of the surface-to-surface indirect fire systems available in achieving the capability requirements and identifies any shortfalls. Then the monograph assesses how the field artillery enables operational art and Unified Land Operations (ULO) through the evaluation of specific elements of operational art and tenets of ULO.
The purpose of this monograph is to analyze the misconception that using minimal means will produce anything other than minimal results. Using the single case study of the American military intervention in El Salvador in the 1980s, this monograph points to the evidence collected that underscores the results of a policy employing minimal means.
The Spanish American War was a turning point in the history of the United States Army. While the US Army was successful in its operational mission of defeating the Spanish in Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico in 1898, it suffered from significant issues in administration.
The tendency to maintain familiar behaviors while evolving slowly and incrementally when faced with unfamiliar problems is the result of a gap in the US Army's understanding of adaptability and the conditions required to achieve it. Developing adaptive leaders is one of the Chief of Staff of the US Army's top priorities, yet few seem to be talking about how to enable this critical capability.
The operational commander has the responsibility to link tactical actions in time, space, and purpose to achieve the policy-maker's strategic objectives. Combat power and operational initiative sustained by tempo set the conditions for the decisive action that explicates these tactics. However, these tasks require a capable sustainment architecture that is flexible.
Despite its prominence in centuries of military theory and role as a foundational attribute of the US Army operating concept since 1982, the definition of operational initiative remains vague. Furthermore, the lack of clarity on this topic blurs the lines between operational initiative and individual initiative, or the willingness of individuals to act in a given situation.
This monograph examines the imperial Russian campaign to quell rebellion in the North Caucasus from 1801 to 1864 and the Bolshevik suppression of the Basmachi rebellion in Central Asia from 1919 to 1933. The Caucasian War and the Basmachi rebellion featured Muslim insurgent movements that exploited inaccessible mountain terrain and relied upon the local population for recruitment and support.
This monograph examines the process by which Dwight D. Eisenhower developed his administration's national security policy, and the lessons that it presents for planners. Eisenhower's experiences provide examples of modern design theory in action, particularly managing the interests of multiple stakeholders, building consensus, and confronting complex problems.
This monograph develops a theory that explains civil-military relationships throughout a wide range of interactions between a society and the society's military. The monograph uses this theory to explain the civil-military relationships in India and Pakistan.
Mission orders as described in ADP 6-0, are the foundation of mission command, because it sets the tone of a command climate. Mission orders tell a subordinate what to do and why he is doing it, but does not tell him how.
The interwar period (1919-1939) presented great economic, social, and political challenges to Germany and the United States. The interwar period challenged the United States Army with reductions in military strength and funding, public indifference, and an elevated level of anti-war sentiment.
In the context of escalating instability in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Africa, special warfare may offer policymakers a valuable strategic option. To succeed, however, special warfare campaigns that apply operational art must be founded upon distinct and sound theories of war and warfare.
Coastal fortifications in the United States developed from the colonial practice of building temporary structures to a system designed to be permanent and enduring. Coastal fortifications became a focus of national military policy after the War of 1812.