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The history of the 10th Mountain Division is a historical example of how the Army faced threats in multiple areas of the world. In response, it innovated to create a new capability to fight in the mountains. Using new techniques, it recruited highly experienced volunteers, developed new training and equipment to build a new capability for the U.S. Army.
In response to the need for sea access, the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) is undergoing an expansion and force modernization process intended to ensure China's access to vital sea lines of communications (SLOCs).
At the outbreak of World War II, Great Britain was unprepared to counter German submarine warfare in the Atlantic. In World War I, Germany had conducted a devastating U-boat campaign against merchant shipping, threatening the Atlantic supply chain that Britain depended on for goods, food, and materiel.
Three comprehensive reports about the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, and the implications of the Trump Administration withdrawal based on violations by Russia, have been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction.
The work of building the DIA was made all the more urgent by the deteriorating situation in Southeast Asia. By the early 1960s, millions of dollars and hundreds of advisory personnel sent by the U.S. were having a negligible impact on the anti-communist campaign there.
This study examines the paradox by investigating the presidential decision making process that leads to military intervention, determining the relative weight for intervention before and after the Cold War, and assessing the importance of technology - the combination of stealth aircraft and precision guided weapons - that made the president's decision to intervene after 1990 easier.
These case studies evaluate the process of force selection for a particular mission and if that force was appropriate. This case study analysis reveals a reimagining of the range of military operations and how they relate to the roles of SOF and GPF.
Applying selected concepts of organizational theory to the Mayaguez incident of 1975 leads to a more comprehensive understanding of events and more accurate lessons learned. Application of organizational theory demonstrates the decision processes at the executive level left the military operation vulnerable to failure.
Two comprehensive reports about the 1975 Mayaguez ship incident involving Cambodia have been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction - The Mayaguez Crisis, Mission Command, and Civil-Military Relations, and The Mayaguez Incident: Near Disaster at Koh Tang.
Chinese and Russian military doctrines indicate that they view space as important to modern warfare and view counterspace capabilities as a means to reduce U.S. and allied military effectiveness. Both reorganized their militaries in 2015, emphasizing the importance of space operations.
The nation has steadily improved its ability to respond to major disasters and the power outages that often result. But increasing threats—whether severe natural disasters, cyber-physical attacks, electromagnetic events, or some combination—present new challenges for protecting the national power grid and recovering quickly from a catastrophic power outage.
Russia is committed to modernizing and adding new military capabilities to its nuclear forces. Land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) are controlled by the Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF), and sea- and air-based strategic systems are managed by the Navy and Aerospace Force, respectively.
The Global Zero movement has gathered momentum in the past several years as its proponents have touted that there's a clear and viable path to creating a world without nuclear weapons by 2030. This paper examines the underlying foundations of the Global Zero movement and analyzes whether their fundamental assumptions are valid or flawed.
If an enemy attempted a first strike attack against the U.S., the triad's mission would be to ensure that its nuclear force would not be crippled or destroyed. This action would ensure a credible threat of a second strike, which ultimately, would result in the increase of effectiveness of our deterrent.
We must develop better ways to get our assets to the fight and maintain flight for longer periods of time. One potential solution is to reinvest in nuclear powered flight. The technical challenges seen in the 1950s & 60s could be overcome with today's technology, we just need to set the goal.
President Donald Trump has underscored containing Iran’s sway as a key element in establishing a “strong and lasting footprint” in Syria as the United States moves toward bringing its Soldiers home. In pursuing this key American objective, this paper recommends that Washington take advantage of the “daylight” between Russia and Iran.
The debate over the future of nuclear weapons has become more prominent each year since the end of the Cold War. The United States leadership is faced with a decision regarding the future of the nuclear weapons program in the face of worldwide proliferation concerns and threats.
Four excellent up-to-date reports on America's nuclear arsenal have been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues November 2018 * Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons January 2019 * Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) February 2018 * National Defense Strategy and the Nuclear Posture Review House Hearing.
The report describes China's expansion by a range of means, including military access and engagement; the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) and Digital Silk Road initiatives; technology acquisition; and a growing economic footprint; with a focus on areas of military expertise.
The Northern Triangle countries of Central America consisting of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras have the highest homicide rates in the world and are characterized by corruption, drug trafficking, and impunity. It is likely the 50,000 unaccompanied alien children attempting to cross into the U.S. in 2014 will increase.
In the twenty-first century, space has replaced the seas as the ultimate frontier for commerce, technology, and national security. Interdiction capabilities navigating through space affords maximum opportunities for missile interception on a global scale.
The first, Islamic Extremists Love the Internet, explores the exploitation of the World Wide Web to develop home-grown terrorists. The second, Reconceptualizing Radicalized Groups and Their Messages, explores alternative approaches for special forces to engage with radicalized groups.
Issued in early 2019, this vital report from the DoD Inspector General provides an up-to-date and comprehensive status report on America's ongoing fight in the Middle East against ISIS. The United States launched Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) in 2014 to defeat the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and to set the conditions for follow on operations to increase regional stability.
Potential adversaries have studied the operational advantages of the U.S. joint force and as a result are developing A2/AD systems and capabilities intended to challenge the U.S. military's asymmetric advantage by denying freedom of access and maneuver in the global commons and across all warfighting domains.
The FY 2019 edition focuses on major changes in the threat environment and in DOE/NNSA's nuclear and radiological threat reduction programs. These developments, such as continued concerns over Iran's nuclear aims, constitute a very serious challenge to the global nuclear nonproliferation regime, as well as incident preparedness and response planning.
The U.S. Army is the Nation's principal land force organized, trained, and equipped for prompt and sustained combat on land. Today's adversaries have studied how the U.S. Joint Force prefers to operate and have adapted by developing capabilities that contest U.S. operations on land, at sea, in the air, in space, and in cyberspace, as well as across the electromagnetic spectrum.
This occasional paper details the importance of process, persuasion, pre-existing, and personality nuances on special operations leadership training and execution, likewise additional traits/characteristics necessary for success within them.
Threats in the 21st century are increasingly complex, requiring multiple perspectives and disciplines to understand and anticipate challenges. National security issues will require consideration of the insights that might be gained through social science analysis in order to provide broader understanding of both challenges and potential solutions.
Released in early 2019, this comprehensive Pentagon report from the Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) Director contains extensive detailed information about over 100 major weapons systems under development by the Department of Defense, Army, Navy, and Air Force - including such consequential systems as the F-35, the Ford Aircraft Carrier, and Ballistic Missile Defense.
On 17 August 2017, at approximately 18:59:32 Zulu (Z), the mishap aircraft (MA), a remotely piloted MQ-1B, tail number (T/N) 06-3166, from the 432d Wing, Creech Air Force Base (AFB), Nevada (NV), was lost in the United States Central Command Area of Responsibility (US CENTCOM AOR) while forward deployed participating in a combat support mission.
The Korean War erupted less than three years after President Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, establishing the Central Intelligence Agency. Before North Korean forces invaded the South on 25 June 1950, the CIA had only a few officers in Korea, and none reported to the Agency’s analytic arm, the Office of Research and Estimates (ORE).
This paper reviews select malicious cyber actions by North Korea in an effort to analyze the effectiveness of cyber as a form of statecraft for weaker states and potential deterrence responses by victims of such malign actions.Powerful states already use cyber in attempts to coerce and deter actions by other states. Russia is perhaps the most active in this respect.
This collection of documents, released in 2017 by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), spans three decades from the 1960s to the 1980s and focuses on the CIA's collection and analysis of the Soviet Navy. This excellent report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction.
Rarely does a work of military strategy elevate its vision beyond merely military concerns. Rarer still are strategies that compel the wise engagement of our military with the broader polity they serve—the American people. The strategy you are about to read is this rare exception. It offers a compelling vision for sustaining the American way of life for the next hundred years.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this is the 2019 annual U.S. intelligence community worldwide threat assessment presented by DNI Director Dan Coats in Congressional testimony on January 29, 2019.
The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations describes how Army forces contribute to the Joint Force's principal task as defined in the unclassified Summary of the National Defense Strategy: deter and defeat Chinese and Russian aggression in both competition and conflict.
Transnational terrorist organizations relish the thought of acquiring an atomic device. Today's nuclear world is not the one our parent's knew. The purpose of this paper is to assess U.S. nuclear deterrence policy to see how it has evolved and if it is appropriate for today's changed security environment.
The United States (US) military's ability to operate with relative impunity has started to change. Adversaries took note of the US's success in Operation Desert Storm, and developed techniques to prevent or disrupt US access to operating domains.
The developmental trends in biological sciences indicate there is a plethora of possibilities concerning the study of microorganisms and its applicability in creating the next biological warfare agent. Both historical and recent events show the potentially devastating effect of using biological warfare agents.
This report has been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. Most military installations are not well prepared to respond to a terrorist incident involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) at the installation.
The Japanese are proceeding towards an Article 9 revision, and have been for some time. Careful consideration must be given to avoid a miscalculation that might threaten the peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific region.
This study seeks to demonstrate that Japan can best satisfy its international security interests by assuming a combatant role in current and future multinational military coalitions. The study labels this alternative military posture “martial internationalism.”
At the center of the Chinese buildup is an increasingly capable Submarine force which is being cultivated and poised for a future showdown with United States naval forces. In a volatile region ripe with natural resources, sea lanes, products and alliances, this force may soon be capable of denying U.S. Navy surface units access to the South China Sea and the waters surrounding Taiwan.
This paper will focus on an air campaign called the Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) which took place in Europe between 1942 and 1945. This combined effort of the United States and Great Britain aimed at defeating the German war waging capability.
The effectiveness of the German and United States submarine campaigns during World War II is compared by analyzing the genesis of each campaign, the commitment to each and the effort to overcome the losses imposed by submarine warfare. This comparison highlights one aspect of the strategic and operational consequences of conflict with an adversary able to build a superior industrial base.
This study analyzed the Battle of the Atlantic from September of 1939 to May of 1945. While studies of the Battle of the Atlantic have traditionally focused on the German submarine offensive, this thesis evaluated the effectiveness of the Italian submarine force as a force multiplier to the German offensive during both coordinated and independent submarine operations (in the Atlantic).
Cyberspace is the newest warfighting domain, but heretofore it has been the nearly exclusive purview of technical experts, not warfighters. Consequently, much of the work on cyber power theory has eschewed the traditional concepts and lexicon of war in favor of language more familiar to technical experts in information communications technology.
This National Intelligence Strategy (NIS) provides the Intelligence Community (IC) with strategic direction from the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) for the next four years. It supports the national security priorities outlined in the National Security Strategy as well as other national strategies.
Two important Pentagon reports about the effects of global warming and climate change on the Department of Defense (DoD) have been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction. The first report in the compilation was issued in January 2019 and is entitled Report on Effects of a Changing Climate to the Department of Defense.
This is a compilation of four excellent reports about the American intervention in Siberia and Northern Russia at the end of World War One. The four reports: U.S. Naval Forces in Northern Russia (Archangel and Murmansk), 1918-1919, Logistics in Reverse: U.S. Intervention in Siberia, The Polar Bear Expedition: The U.S. Intervention in Northern Russia, and The Siberia Expedition 1918-1920.