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Four important reports about Operation Anaconda during the Afghanistan War are reproduced: Criticisms Associated With Operation Anaconda - Can Long Distance Leadership Be Effective? * Operation Anaconda: Lessons for Joint Operations * Operation Anaconda: Lessons Learned, or Lessons Observed? * An Air Power Perspective
One of the most crucial joint combat operations in Afghanistan was Operation ANACONDA, designed and executed to remove the last remaining organized Taliban resistance. Operation ANACONDA generated lessons involving many aspects of the art of joint warfare.
Operation Anaconda, a subordinate operation to Operation Enduring Freedom in 2002, was notable for difficulties in integrating US air and ground forces in order to bring combat power to bear on a stronger than originally anticipated foe.
Operation Anaconda, conducted in the Shahikot Valley of Afghanistan during early March 2002, was a complex battle fought in rugged mountainous terrain under difficult conditions. The battle ended as an American victory at the cost of eight U.S. military personnel killed and more than 50 wounded.
Although Anaconda was successful in achieving its objective of clearing al Qaeda fighters out of the Shah-i-Kot Valley, the planning and execution errors associated with this operation have provided a wealth of valuable lessons for the United States military. This paper reviews the events of Anaconda and through a detailed analysis, examines the various criticisms it received.
Close Air Support (CAS) depends on close cooperation between ground and air units, predicated on mutual understanding and close proximity. CAS also depends on aviator training and aircraft characteristics. Despite predictions of air power's dominance, air-ground teams are the most effective employment of military power.
Since the United States Army acquired its first Wright flyer and integrated the airplane into battle, the role of airpower has been a constant source of friction between ground and air forces. Army and Air Force cultures, doctrines, shared experiences, and fratricide involving close air support (CAS) have all helped shape the tenuous relationship between the two Services.
Terrorist groups in the Middle East continue to pose a challenge to U.S. interests and a threat to the security of the United States and its allies. It is important to understand what factors drive the behavior of these groups and how they adapt to certain challenges.
Published: November 13, 2018.
Nonfiction » History » Asian
In August 2017, the forced mass migration of the Rohingya, a Muslim minority group in Myanmar, became world news after the country's military began to drive thousands from their homes. Within months, an estimated 671,000 Rohingya had left the country.
Rebel groups and insurgencies have been an important topic of study for several decades, particularly with the rise and success of groups like Hezbollah, al-Qaeda, Hamas, and the Islamic State. When rebel groups are discussed in the media and in popular culture, they are generally portrayed purely as violent organizations bent on imposing strict religious doctrines on an unwilling population.
Western governments have invested considerable resources in counter-violent extremism (CVE) programs in an effort to reduce the spread of terrorism both domestically and internationally. One approach, formal education, holds potential as a long-term strategy for preventing violent extremist ideologies from taking hold in a community.
How did Douglas MacArthur's experiences throughout his career influence his strategic methodology and shape his potential theories on the conduct of war? This thesis explores MacArthur's life and military career to determine the foundation behind the man and identify critical areas.
When the largest earthquake ever recorded in Japan's modern history struck on the afternoon of March 11, 2011 (3.11), the resulting tsunami and nuclear disaster contributed to the crisis quickly spinning out of control.
The United States power grid is a logical target for a major cyber attack because it connects all of the nation's critical infrastructures with electricity. Attackers consistently exploit vulnerabilities of the bulk power system and are close to being able to disrupt electrical distribution.
The United States and its Allies in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) shifted their collective focus away from the North Atlantic in the early 1990s because Russia was no longer a dominant threat to Western security as it had been during the Cold War.
Germany's newest right-wing party, Alternative fur Deutschland (AfD), burst on to Germany's political stage in 2013 and has achieved more success than any German right-wing party since 1949. The resurgence of the German right wing has caused concern for many who still remember the legacy of National Socialism, and the wave of right-wing populism that has swept Europe has exacerbated those fears.
Support of a soccer club has become a cultural cornerstone for a significant portion of European society, yet a major portion of the German population has been denied this opportunity to root for a home team or even a local player. The cultural significance of soccer in the region may also have helped fuel societal divisions.
Video games are a very popular form of media and entertainment—though not without controversy. This thesis seeks to understand the effects of video games on those who play them, because the U.S. Armed Forces have begun to adopt video games as training tools.
Demonstrations have brought awareness to issues of healthcare, civil rights, women's rights, and the environment. While most of these demonstrations have been peaceful, some have resulted in injury and death. This thesis attempts to develop an understanding of the factors motivating non-violence and violence at demonstrations by examining the 1995 Million March and the 2017 Unite the Right rally.
China portrays the Belt and Road Initiative - an interconnected network of rail lines, oil and gas pipelines, roads, bridges, and port facilities designed to connect China with Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe - as an effort aimed at regional economic integration with win-win outcomes for every country involved.
As this study establishes, the influence of Islamist extremists has expanded into the United States. The terrorist organization known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has attracted many U.S. citizens to support its radical perspective of Islam.
In the same Cold War context in which the CIA's Book Program covertly sent Western literature behind the Iron Curtain into the Communist world, Christian missionaries also used covert (and some overt) methods to smuggle Bibles to the Underground Churches of the Eastern Bloc.
Released in July 2018, this report by the NASA Office of Inspector General, Office of Audits, assessed NASA's progress in maximizing utilization of the ISS to accomplish its human exploration objectives and evaluated the options and challenges associated with a transition to commercial operation, potential extension, and the Station's eventual retirement.
This is an impressive and comprehensive bibliography by Dr. Barton Whaley on the theory and practice of "Counterdeception." Dr. Whaley has been an avid researcher and teacher of military-political deception studies and theories for nearly four decades.
This report surveys the legal and policy landscape surrounding cryptocurrencies around the world. While not dissimilar in form to the 2014 Law Library of Congress report on the same subject, which covered forty foreign jurisdictions and the European Union, this report is significantly more comprehensive, covering 130 countries as well as some regional organizations that have issued laws.
The current landscape of publicly available information compiled on school shootings comes from a wealth of sources including, but not limited to, peer-reviewed studies, government reports, archived newspapers, mainstream media, non-profit enquiries, private websites, personal blogs, and crowd-sourced lists. Individually, however, these platforms fail to capture the magnitude of the problem.
This thesis investigates the Islamic Republic of Iran's current natural gas sector and explores the opportunities to monetize its proved natural gas reserves. According to BP statistics, Iran owns the world's second-largest proved natural gas reserves, totaling 33.2 trillion cubic meters, or 17.2% of the world's total proved reserves.
Determining the right mix of military to civilian aid to strengthen partner militaries and their governing institutions will challenge operational artists in the future. Military planners who broaden their fields of study to include a partner nation's military, government, and economic capabilities approach the problem with a holistic understanding.
The Philippine-American War and Moro War demonstrate the failure of an insurgency to achieve objectives if there is a lack of support from the populace. The American occupation of the Philippine islands in 1898 provoked sentiments of anti-imperialism among the populace.
Coincident with the 200th anniversary of Karl Marx's birth, socialism is making a comeback in American political discourse. Detailed policy proposals from self-declared socialists are gaining support in Congress and among much of the electorate. It is unclear, of course, exactly what a typical voter has in mind when he or she thinks of "socialism."
The purpose of this monograph is to provide context for the examination of doctrine as it evolves during and following a period of conflict. To accomplish this, the lenses of anticipation, adaptation, and emergence are applied to the U.S. Army Field Artillery's role through a chronological historical case study of U.S. Army Field Artillery doctrine from 1919-1954.
Salafi-Jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, and ISIS threaten U.S. national security and the stability of the Middle East. The ongoing fighting in Syria and Iraq and Salafi-Jihadist global terrorist attacks from Paris to Mali show that we understand relatively little about how this radical ideology propounds violent goals and propels its followers to devise strategies to achieve them.
Transnational criminal organizations pose a threat to U.S. national security as well as the security of the global commons. Their activities lead to the corruption of government actors, erosion of human security, and the disruption of globalization.
This monograph examines a growing culture of casualty aversion, and its effects on the need for military robots. It makes a comparison between the growing influence and effectiveness of airpower in World War II, and the current rise of military robot interaction.
Over the past two decades, the international community has employed various transitional justice mechanisms to promote reconciliation and establish the rule of law in countries transitioning from civil war. The effect of these mechanisms on long-term peace however, remains ambiguous.
To some, the term cyberspace is a daunting term. For U.S. military leaders, cyberspace needs to be embraced and understood in order to effectively integrate the capabilities offered in and through cyberspace with all military operations. Cyberspace should be viewed as another domain in which to operate, in other words a different or additional battlespace.
This monograph determined that political and economic stability are required for Security Sector Reform (SSR) success over the long term. This monograph studied the efforts of the United States in Kenya and Mali to determine if political and economic stability are necessary requirements for SSR success over the long term.
Over the past twenty years, the mission of the Army Chemical Corps has evolved from a focus on protecting military forces against Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons to include the elimination Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), and CBRN consequence management.
The Defense Intelligence Agency, which was founded in 1961 over the resistance of the armed services and the Joint Staff, adopted and extended this metaphor as part of its bureaucratic survival strategy. DIA looked to the business world's customer orientation paradigm for ways to focus the agency on satisfying the needs of policymakers in order to justify independence and resources.
This monograph examines the value added to the U.S. Army by sending officers to foreign staff colleges. It argues that the U.S. Army should educate more of its best field grade officers abroad to gain worldly, contextual intelligence.
Despite the apparent recognition of a problem, the U.S. has been seemingly ineffective in deterring or dissuading continued Chinese cyber activity—despite the potential significant impact to economic and national security.
The 2007 Merida Initiative marked a major shift in Mexico-U.S. commitment to address transnational organized crime. The organized crime networks view international borders as opportunities, making a profit by operating both as multinational corporations and violent armies.
The United States has been involved in the Pacific for over a century, and the need to understand the geography and tyranny of distance is only one characteristic of the theater. Understanding the importance of posturing and setting the theater for deterrence, successful defense, and sustainment is even more crucial.
Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0 (AV 3.0) is another milestone in the Department's development of a flexible, responsible approach to a framework for multimodal automation. It introduces guiding principles and describes the Department's strategy to address existing barriers to safety innovation and progress.
America's manufacturing and defense industrial base ("the industrial base") supports economic prosperity and global competitiveness, and arms the military with capabilities to defend the nation. Currently, the industrial base faces an unprecedented set of challenges.
The current U.S. Army operating concept, as described in TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, states that the evolving global operating environment contains diverse enemies, employing traditional, unconventional and hybrid strategies that threaten the security and vital interests of the United States.
This research recommends five changes to the U.S. military approach to defeating violent extremist organizations. The first is the introduction of a scale of conflict to U.S. military doctrine in JP 3-0 with intra-state, inter-state, extra-state, non-state, and transnational scales.
Understanding the impacts of cyber technologies on war and warfare is increasingly critical for a planner's ability to design and execute operational art. The purpose of this monograph is to examine how the U.S. Army describes cyberspace and the effects that cyber technologies have on military strategy and operational planning writ large.
In 2011 President Obama released the United States Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime (SCTOC). The strategy identified Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) as a national security threat directed the creation of an Interagency Threat Mitigation Working Group (TMWG). The SCTOC tasked the TMWG to identify criminal networks that posed a sufficiently high national security threat.
Covert cross border infiltration plays a critical role in modern warfare. The methods counter U.S. military technical and firepower advantages by hiding behind the international understanding about the sanctity of borders. This study examined how U.S. Special Forces and First Field Forces conducted border denial operations in the Central Highland "tri-border" region during the Vietnam War.