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Since World War I, the popularity of using economic sanctions by western nations to influence the behavior of states not conforming to international norms has increased. The end of the Cold War renewed the zeal within the international community and unleashed a wave of new sanctions during the 1990s that earned it the "Sanctions Decade" title.
The United States policy for dealing with a nuclear North Korea has been a combination of containment, deterrence, and limited engagement since the enactment of the 1994 Agreed Framework. While this and earlier policies have prevented war on the Korean peninsula, such approaches have not prevented North Korea from developing a nuclear program.
Since Beijing organized the six-party talks in 2003 and persuaded North Korea to participate, much of the international community has applauded China's leadership in attempting to stabilize the region. However, some experts have mistaken China's preference for a non-nuclear Korea as indication that Beijing's policy goals are more similar to U.S. policy goals than is accurate.
North Korea's economic straits provide one of the few levers to move the country to cooperate in attempts by the United States, China, South Korea, Japan, and Russia to halt and dismantle its nuclear program. These five countries plus North Korea comprise the "six parties" who are engaged in talks to resolve issues raised by the DPRK's development of a nuclear weapon.
The North Korean regime's 'hierarchy of nuclear motivations' including its perception of the security, leverage and prestige offered by the possession of nuclear weapons as well as the significant time and energies it has invested in developing a nuclear device, make an actual verifiable dismantling of this program unlikely.
This paper argues that General MacArthur's decision making after Inchon, between 15 September and late November 1950, was flawed and led to the selection of an inappropriate course of action for operations in North Korea.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this ebook reproduces two Army documents: Unit Ministry Team (UMT) Crisis Counseling: The Chaplain Assistant's Role, and Guide to the Prevention of Suicide and Self-Destructive Behavior.
Three excellent reports have been professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction in this compilation: Russia and Hybrid Warfare: Identifying Critical Elements in Successful Applications of Hybrid Tactics * Maskirovka 2.0: Hybrid Threat, Hybrid Response * Wrestling the Bear: The Rise of Russian Hybrid Warfare
EUCOM and NATO commanders today face a new threat in Eastern Europe in the form of Russian hybrid warfare, as recently seen in Crimea and the Ukraine. As EUCOM and NATO planners develop operational contingency plans for hybrid warfare in this theater, the tenets of counterinsurgency provide a logical framework for a successful operational design.
The United States has had a bitter set of experiences with insurgencies and counterinsurgency operations, but it is by no means alone in having to confront such threats and challenges. Indeed, according to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, the greatest domestic threat to Russia's security is the ongoing insurgency in the North Caucasus.
The former Soviet states in Central and Eastern Europe comprise a prominent portion of the Russian Federation's "Near Abroad." During and since World War II, these countries have alternately served as an adversary avenue of approach and a security zone for the Soviet Union.
The US decision to meet the needs of deterrence by relying less on nuclear weapons and instead developing conventional weapons that can have strategic effects may not have had the intended deterrent effect on Russia and China. Far from encouraging them to reduce the importance of nuclear weapons in their national security strategy, it may have inspired them to rely more on nuclear weapons.
The Russian government has waged two major military campaigns since 1991: the invasion of the Republic of Georgia (2008) and the annexation of Crimea from the Ukraine (2014). Russia also conducted numerous other military operations, employing unconventional warfare, irregular warfare and hybrid warfare.
Russia, like the United States, has experienced its struggles with counterinsurgency warfare. In Afghanistan, the Russian General Staff chose to approach the operation with a violently offensive mindset.
This publication, The Russian Navy - A Historic Transition, is intended to provide the reader with a basic introduction to the Russian Navy and an appreciation of current developments that will shape Russia's navy and its operations in the 21st century.
When countries or organizations stand in opposition to Russia they are likely to receive a cyber attack in order to influence their position. The high likelihood of future cyber attacks, the ease of conducting cyber attacks, and the amount of networks to conduct the attacks make this monograph relevant for study.
This study investigates the major influences on U.S. decision-making regarding the enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) following the end of the Cold War. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many questioned the need for the Alliance's continued existence.
This thought-provoking paper describes the irregular and hybrid tools and techniques that Russian President Vladimir Putin and his security and intelligence forces have used, first in the attack against Georgia in 2008, then in the assault on Ukraine, and now in Syria, to advance renewed Russian regional hegemony and strategic reach.
An estimated 35 countries have nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium, and/or stockpiles of plutonium on their soil. Although four out of every five nuclear weapons that have been built since 1945 have retired from service, the world is still awash in nuclear weapons.
Analyzing unique survey data gathered in the summer of 2015 from Russia, the authors are able to trace the links between personal corrupt behavior and political attitudes. They show that participation in everyday corruption lowers a person's support for the political regime, both as a bivariate relationship and in a multivariate model with controls.
Russia can no longer be considered a world superpower, but it remains a great power in terms of strategic global security. Russia's importance is based on its nuclear arsenal and permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
As the United States pivots toward Asia, U.S. national security professionals must include Russia and Sino-Russian relations as a vital part of any strategy to manage China. In January 2012, the United States announced a strategic shift towards the Asia-Pacific because U.S. economic and security interests are increasingly linked to developments in Asia.
This study analyzes anti-Americanism in Russia during the era of Vladimir Putin. The objective is to evaluate Vladimir Putin's anti-Americanism and the political implications of Putinist anti-Americanism within Russia.
Recent actions in Europe have highlighted the ability of Muslim diasporas to conduct terrorist attacks against their adopted homeland. With an estimated 2.6 million Muslim diaspora in the United States and millions more seeking refuge from current conflicts, there is concern with Islamic extremists utilizing diaspora to conduct future attacks on the United States homeland.
Poorly trained, immature and drugged, child soldiers would commit unimaginably horrific atrocities on a grand scale. The RUF saw children as a free, easy to manipulate, abundant, and when drugged, aggressively inhumane force that would conduct fighting for the side that gave them a sense of belonging and home.
Technological advances in unmanned systems have expanded existing military capabilities. Despite the adoption of these technologies for military applications, policy guidance for U.S. national decisionmakers has lagged the introduction of new capabilities.
Transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) have profited from the smuggling of contraband into the United States since its existence. Terror groups have explicitly stated their intent to target the citizens, infrastructure, and economy of the United States.
This study examines the roles of the U.S. Army in America's nuclear undertakings. Since 1942, when the Army took responsibility for managing the Manhattan Project, the Army has made many important contributions to America's nuclear endeavors.
Two unique studies examine leadership and judgment of Eisenhower and his fellow generals: A Comparative Analysis of the Military Leadership Styles of George C. Marshall and Eisenhower, and Can Judgment Be Developed: A Case Study of Three Proven Leaders (Patton, Eisenhower, Bradley).
When World War II ended, the U.S. was left as one of the remaining superpowers. Although the Soviets were also very strong militarily, the U.S. found itself as the one nation with the most stable political and economic conditions, as well as being one of the two remaining military superpowers.
This paper reviews the budgetary politics and interservice rivalries involved in the formulation of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's defense policies. Specifically, the paper chronicles the reaction of the U.S. Army General Staff to proposals to greatly increase U.S. reliance on strategic air power at the expense of Army force structure and modernization.
This paper investigates General Dwight D. Eisenhower's roles as strategist and strategic general during World War II. Eisenhower had zero combat experience and was still a colonel on the Army rolls when selected for four-star unified command.
The Suez crisis of 1956 is a valuable case for the examination of presidential leadership since the Middle East crisis was important and complex enough to engage the President in a full test of his ability as chief executive and crisis manager.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General George S. Patton Jr. demonstrated superb leadership in World War II. Their childhood upbringing, military education, Army assignments, as well as the mentoring they received during the interwar period essentially strengthened their development, making them triumphant leaders.
The teacher-student relationship that Conner and Eisenhower shared is by far the most famous and most cited in the area of military mentoring. This relationship began when Eisenhower reported to Panama. Eisenhower's assignment as Conner's brigade executive officer at Camp Gaillard in Panama began a significant transition in Eisenhower's professional education.
Eisenhower's year at Leavenworth can best be understood in the context of several themes that characterized his life. One theme was his inspired competitiveness and consistent concern with how well he was succeeding. Ike was a competitor and despite his likability and basic humility was committed to doing his best.
This is a comprehensive and massive compilation of reports, documents, and academic research papers about the life and career of Dwight Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States and commanding general of the Allied forces in World War II.
This book will describe the evolution of this centerpiece of the Army educational system, and how changes in its curriculum, organization, and student body have reflected the dynamics of a rapidly changing world.
The psychological, health, and logistical implications of displaced persons fleeing a real or perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and enhanced conventional weapons (CBRNE) environment will create complex mission command and support requirements requiring innovative and agile responses.
This reproduction of the National Parks Index 2012-2016 is a complete administrative listing of the National Park System's areas and related areas. It has been revised to reflect congressional actions.
This research evaluates the United States (US) Army's Arctic capability to determine if it possesses the means to achieve the strategic objectives articulated in the 2013 National Strategy for the Arctic Region and 2013 Department of Defense Arctic Strategy. This monograph argues that the US Army has an Arctic capability gap at the operational level.
The United States will be a stakeholder in resolving the natural disasters in USPACOM. To posture the US Military resources effectively during Phase 0, the pre-crisis phase, the United States should nurture its relationship with the Philippines in terms of disaster preparation. In doing so, the United States military will posture itself in an advantageous position.
The degree of complexity and rate of change found in the global security environment is increasingly leaving senior policymakers surprised and US national interests potentially at risk. As a result, decision makers are increasingly faulting the Intelligence Community for failure to provide adequate warning.
Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book reproduces five valuable monographs and documents about military ethics, including the 2015 Fort Leavenworth Ethics Symposium.
This exceptionally detailed and authoritative atlas of a major Civil War campaign is a superb leader development tool and educational reference, providing a heavy dose of tactical detail and a significant focus on the operational level of war. The campaign provides a host of issues to be examined.
This collection of historical vignettes seeks to sharpen our understanding of Mission Command philosophy and practice by providing examples from the past in which Mission Command principles played a decisive role. Some vignettes show junior officers following their commander’s intent and exercising disciplined initiative in very chaotic combat operations.
These works are a collection of observations, insights, and advice from over 50 serving and retired Senior Non-Commissioned Officers. These experienced Army leaders have provided for the reader, outstanding mentorship on leadership skills, tasks, and responsibilities relevant to our Army today.