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Germany in 2016 finds itself in the midst of a political and diplomatic revolution, the meaning of which is unclear for United States policy other than this process constitutes a break with custom and tradition in statecraft. This study analyzes the evolution of German foreign policy and security policy since revival of statecraft in 1945.
What would be the implications of a major European power leaving the European Union (EU)? Political movements in two of the most influential member states, the United Kingdom and France, have courted an EU withdrawal for decades.
The study explores how the United States can balance its identity as a nation of immigrants with its increasing security concerns within forced migrant populations. The research describes various philosophies of and motives for migration and the United States' role as an international destination for refugees.
The Department of Defense's (DOD) large satellites provide robust capabilities, but they are ill designed to combat emerging threats and concerns like anti-satellite weapons and a shrinking defense budget. Small satellites are a potential solution to this challenge, but the technology is too nascent for the DOD to deploy.
Much has been written about Chinese enterprise in sub-Saharan Africa, most bad and some good, which is mainly due to the profit-driven approach, where aid distribution is tied to trade, directly or indirectly. The United States' relationship to the region is fundamentally different, following a Western model of conditional aid attached to structural and social reform.
The existing literature suggests there are no significant outcome differences between online and traditional degree programs in the civilian sector. Few studies have looked for such differences within military schools and colleges, specifically.
The Marine Corps has identified its reliance on energy resources as a real threat to military security and a drag on the logistics tail of expeditionary operations. This research recommends that the Marine Corps prioritize development of the existing Unit Energy Manager program to address operational energy capability requirements.
Nations in the Asia-Pacific region are modernizing their naval fleets, and many are choosing to use submarines as the centerpiece of these plans. China, one of the most influential nations in the region, has upgraded its submarine force, and it is important to analyze the impact this modernization effort will have on the stability of the region.
Lack of tactical health information is an issue that military leaders and healthcare providers face at all organizational levels today. Incomplete or missing treatment information undermines the provision of downrange care at higher echelons.
The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of the U.S. military's usage of various small arms and their associated cartridges from WWII to current day. The primary objective centers on an analysis of the driving factors and decisions used in military cartridge selection and development.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Medellin, Colombia, are large urban cities that have struggled with public insecurity caused by illegal armed groups. Both have developed new programs to address areas of violence and parts of the cities that have become marginalized.
Ecuador's role in the cocaine trade has historically differed from its drug-trafficking neighbors. This Andean country traditionally serves as a transshipment hub for illegal narcotics, precursor chemicals, and a place to launder money.
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the present situation in Russia and examine possible influences on potential strategies moving forward. The relationship the United States has with Russia is only deteriorating, and Russia seems to be growing bolder by the day.
This study uses Costa Rica as a case study to examine the efficacy of reducing armed conflict by eliminating individual national forces. The key to promoting peace through abolishing the military lies in four elements: culture, economic evolution, domestic developments, and external threats.
The study finds that German foreign fighters are primarily mobilized through traditional social network connections and that the mobilizing network in Germany consists of a nationwide, interconnected, and politically active "Salafist scene."
Despite four decades of astonishing economic growth, China's authoritarian government remains firmly entrenched in power. This fact challenges modernization theory, which anticipates that as countries become wealthier they will also become more democratic.
Comparing Soviet ties with Cuba and Sandinista-led Nicaragua during the Cold War to Russian ties with Cuba and Nicaragua today, this study finds that Russia's reengagement with former Soviet allies in Latin America does not portend a return of the Soviet "bear" to the U.S. periphery.
This book has been prepared as part of the project of the American Battle Monuments Commission to commemorate in a complete and lasting manner the accomplishments and services of the American forces in Europe during the World War, meeting the need for a concise reference book and a brief history of the American Expeditionary Forces.
This book has been written for a widely diversified audience—those interested in the general history of our Nation's highways and those whose interest might be more narrowly confined to matters relating to the technical aspects of highway transportation.
Italy has historically been an avid supporter of European integration, but nationalist movements promoting euroscepticism or isolationism threaten to alter both the Italian and the European security landscape.
Recent research reveals a precipitous decrease in Catholic adherents across Latin America. Since 1970, numerous Latin Americans have professed a shift to Protestantism. Scholars have analyzed this trend within certain countries and as a regional tendency, but have not comprehensively addressed the Colombian case.
Now that Colorado and Washington have fully legalized cannabis, what does data demonstrate to support or rebut these arguments and what problems have sporadic legalization led to in the drug control space? This study examines regulatory, financial, and criminal data in Colorado and Washington to identify advantages and disadvantages of legalizing cannabis.
This study seeks to determine how the United States has become the de facto security guarantor to Iraq's Kurds. The development of a formal relationship between the American government and Iraq's Kurdish population began as a response to a humanitarian crisis after the First Gulf War.
Since the ceasefire of 1991, Morocco and the POLISARIO Front have maintained a stalemate in the Western Sahara conflict. This obscure war, which recently surpassed forty years of hostilities, is at the center of a complex set of regional and foreign interests that encourage its prolongation.
This study analyzes contemporary civil-military relations in three Latin American countries: Brazil, El Salvador, and Uruguay. Since 2010, each country has elected a president who was previously an armed insurgent resisting authoritarian regimes of the 1970s and 1980s.
This study examines the rationales behind Russian President Vladimir Putin's decision to intervene in Ukraine through the lenses of neoclassical realism and prospect theory. The risk-acceptant decision to employ hybrid warfare in Crimea was fundamentally due to Putin's loss aversion.
The Navy has seen a significant increase in the presence of mobile and smart devices on its units due to advancements in technology and younger sailors' desire to be connected at all times. These devices create security threats due to their easily concealable size and their host of connectivity and image related features.
Current research indicates a growing Chinese interest in Latin America that has driven tighter economic and organizational involvement in the region. Arguably, this growing relationship has challenged United States' hemispheric policy.
This study examines the role of Myanmar's military, the Tatmadaw, in the country's political economy. Using a hybrid of the new institutional economics and the developmental state model as the analytical framework, a historical comparative analysis reveals that the Tatmadaw was a major actor with a dominant role in shaping Myanmar's political economic institutions.
Current Marine Corps policy requires that all Marines below the rank of Gunnery Sergeant and with fewer than 13 years of service undergo annual rifle qualification. Annual marksmanship training is repetitive and only addresses the fundamentals of marksmanship, which Marines typically master in their first few years.
Strategic communications play a vital role in the fight against terrorist groups, especially in Muslim nations. This thesis analyzes the United States' policies and strategic communications in the post-September 11, 2001, war against Islamic fundamentalists to determine if U.S. strategic communication policies have been effective in countering Islamic extremism.
In 2006, Mexican President Felipe Calderon announced the "war on drugs," an ongoing, low-intensity, asymmetrical war between the government and various drug cartels that has proven the bloodiest conflict since the Mexican civil war a century ago. Meanwhile, the subculture of narco-cultura continues to grow, under the influence of powerful drug cartels throughout Mexico.
A three-country case study was used to analyze the economic, political, and social impacts of entrepreneurship, and the development of entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa was studied through the lens of five entrepreneurial factors (freedom, labor, infrastructure, governance, and business environment).
In the last two decades, Chinese cyber espionage has cultivated a significant reputation in cyberspace for its high-volume, illicit exploitation of defense technology. At the same time, the PLA has also rapidly modernized its naval, fighter jet, and air defense technologies.
Despite being promoted by China as the creation of a win-win environment throughout the Indian Ocean region, realist scholars argue that China's motivations are to utilize this infrastructure to create overseas bases, threaten India's perceived sphere of influence, and increase Chinese influence by challenging the regional order.
This study examines the threat Boko Haram poses to Nigeria and its neighbors in West Africa, and determines the extent to which ensuing regional instability may or may not threaten United States (U.S.) national interests in the region.
China has neither joined the Combined Maritime Forces task force in the GOA to combat piracy nor been completely transparent about its maritime strategy in either region. There are varying theories about what is motivating China's behavior. Why is China involved in counter-piracy operations?
This study examines the efficacy of U.S. counterterrorism strategy in the region vis-a-vis African states' capacity to explain the persisting Salafi-Jihadist organizations in the region. Exploring Salafi-Jihadism's ideological, doctrinal, and historical aspects illustrates that these organizations have limited interest in political solutions.
Millennials are commonly thought of as entitled, high maintenance, and less trustworthy than the older generations; in other words, they have personality traits associated with insider threats, making the insider threat and the Millennial a dangerous combination.
The use of financial interdiction to disrupt the development of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their components is an option in the so-called counterproliferation toolkit. The effectiveness of economic counterproliferation interdiction operations is frequently debated; however, counterproliferation operations have successfully stopped some global WMD illicit trade.
As the Department of Defense executes its mission in its newest warfare domain, cyberspace, some have questioned its choices with regard to command and control of its cyber forces. This thesis examines historical cases of new warfare domains and how the Department of Defense structured the command and control elements of its forces dedicated to the air and space domains.
The military has conducted expeditionary operations for centuries; airmen began to participate in expeditions from the very early days of flight. Descriptions of expeditions, with and without air components, evoke suggestive lessons for current expeditionary operations.
One of the recurring themes of military literature is a search for the qualities and attributes of successful commanders. Carl von Clausewitz argues that some commanders possess a genius for war. Others argue that battle and campaign outcomes are merely functions of luck.
The successful application of military deception is guided by the principles of war and by the principles of military deception. In particular, the principles of economy of force and integration serve the operational planner by ensuring an efficient use of military deception.
This monograph examines whether current Marine Corps cold weather doctrine and related training are adequate to prepare Individuals and units for employment in that environment. Relatively new, Marine Corps cold weather doctrine is still being written with the first doctrinal manuals published In 1988.
Suicide bombers are today's weapon of choice. Terrorists are using suicide bombers because they are a low cost, low technology, and low risk weapon. Suicide bombers are readily available, require little training, leave no trace behind, and strike fear into the general population.
This report is an analysis of the Army conducted by the Carlisle Scholars Program at the U.S. Army War College. Recent studies of the Army have tended to fixate on the mismatch between the ends of national military strategy and the means available to execute it, epitomized by the 2011 Budget Control Act and the 2012 Defense Strategic Guidance.
For decades, NASA has produced a comprehensive overview of all federal space and aeronautics programs on an annual basis, providing unique details of the flight activities and programs of NASA, the Department of Defense, and other agencies.
This study is about three interwar transformational American military leaders: Maj Gen John A. Lejeune, Marine Corps Commandant; Admiral William A. Moffett; and William "Billy" Mitchell. This 20-year interlude between the world wars marked a time of great social, economic, political, and technological change in the developed world.
During his tenure as Commandant, General Lejeune would make visionary decisions that not only changed the culture of the Marine Corps, but would also lay the foundation for the development of amphibious warfare that set the groundwork for the successes enjoyed during World War II and beyond. His far reaching actions are still felt in the Marine Corps today.